Medicine stands apart from other areas where machine learning can be applied. While we have seen advances in other fields with lots of data, it is not the volume of data that makes medicine so hard, it is the challenges arising from extracting actionable information from the complexity of the data. It is these challenges that make medicine the most exciting area for anyone who is really interested in the frontiers of machine learning – giving us real-world problems where the solutions are ones that are socially important and which potentially impact on us all. Think COVID-19! In this talk I will show how machine learning is transforming medicine and how medicine is driving new advances in machine learning, including new methodologies in time-series, causal inference, interpretable and explainable machine learning, as well as the development of new machine learning areas – quantitative epistemology.